Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Hofstede 1 Running Head: HOFSTEDEÃ¢â¬â¢S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: THE BASICS AND THE CRITICISMS ra oi M HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Cultural Dimensions: E. The Basics and the Criticisms Moira E. Hanna H Clemson University na an Hofstede 2 Abstract HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s model (1980) has been used widely in research in the past two decades. The culture-based model consists of four dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, and masculinity-femininity. Each of these dimensions was identified through the use of group-level data collected from IBM branches in 40 different countries. Despite the contributions of the model to cultural research, it has faced many criticisms over the years. Some in-principleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦H Power distance, which is typically measured at a national or collective level, must also be an measured at an individual level. The reasoning behind this clarification is that a country na as a whole may exhibit high power distance, but the distribution of individuals within the country typically follows a normal curve. Primarily, some people will be extremely high or low on power distance, but the majority center around the intermediate levels of power distance. Despite the difference between national and individual levels of power distance, the individual does influence the national level. In a study done by Maznevski, DiStefano, Gomez, Noorderhaven, and Wu (2002), it was found that when cultural data was first gathered at the individual level then aggregated to the national level, there was a Hofstede 5 difference in means between countries. This indicates that, the average individual level of power distance will be higher in a country that is ranked high on power distance. So what exactly influences the individual level of power distance? Such aspects as age, where you grew up, and if you moved away from the country help to determine each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s level of power distance (Triandis, 2004; Yamada Singelis, 1999). The idea of individual and national levels of analysis presented for power distance also holds true for the remaining three cultural dimensions. M The second dimension is uncertainty avoidance.Show MoreRelatedCultural Constraints in Management by G. Hofstede904 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Critical Review of Hofstede, G. 1993, Cultural Constraints in Management Theories, The Executive, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 81-94. There have been many research and studies on the national cultures and its consequences on management theories by numerous researchers. Of those many, Ã¢â¬ËCultural constraints on management theories,Ã¢â¬â¢ by Hofstede (1993) is one that has been talked about by most scholars. He strongly claimed that management is a function of culture and that culture influences the way managersRead MoreHofstede And Globe ( Global Leadership And Organisation Behaviour Effectiveness1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbstract This report is comparison between Hofstede and GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organisation Behaviour Effectiveness) research on Culture and Leadership. Hofstede and GLOBE is similar, they both investigation the behaviour of organisations in different countries and across culture. But the way and research scope still quite different. In this report we will summarized and reviewed the theoretical dimension of various culture and leadership. Include the deficiencies in HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s work whichRead MoreHofstede And Globe ( Global Leadership And Organisation Behaviour Effectiveness1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbstract This report is comparison between Hofstede and GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organisation Behaviour Effectiveness) research on Culture and Leadership. Hofstede and GLOBE is similar, they both investigation the behaviour of organisations in different countries and across culture. But the way and research scope still quite different. In this report we will summarized and reviewed the theoretical dimension of various culture and leadership. Include the deficiencies in HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s work which theRead MoreUnderstanding National Culture And How Relevant Is Important Essay841 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNational Culture 4 2.1.- HallÃ¢â¬â¢s Context Culture Model 5 2.2.- Hofstede s Cultural Dimensions Theory 5 2.3.- Trompenaars Model of National Culture Differences 5 3.- Conclusion 6 4.- Bibliography 7 Ã¢â¬Æ' 1.- Introduction According to Hofstede definition, it is possible to develop the idea of national culture as a culture for a particular group of humans that includes a systems of values and is passed down between generations by learning. (Hofstede, 1980, p. 21) Given this, the main objective of this essayRead MoreThe Light Of Cultural Distance1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the light of cultural distance, several models that had been acknowledged used to analyse cultural variations in terms of many aspects (Mooij Hofstede 2010). Similarly, cultural consequences could be beneficial for the global marketing in any business and can help to decide which advertising strategy is more relevant to adapt (Mooij Hofstede 2010). Hofstede model was the pioneer that distinguishes the culture into categories and became the most common have used among scholar and practitionersRead MoreUnderstanding National Culture And How Relevant Is Important1209 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCulture 4 2.1.- HallÃ¢â¬â¢s Context Culture Model (180) 4 2.2.- Hofstede s Cultural Dimensions Theory 5 2.3.- Trompenaars Model of National Culture Differences 6 3.- Conclusion 7 4.- Bibliography 8 Ã¢â¬Æ' 1.- Introduction According to Hofstede definition, it is possible to develop the idea of national culture as a culture for a particular group of humans that includes systems of values and is passed down between generations by learning. (Hofstede G. H., 1980, p. 21) Given this, the main target of this essayRead MoreHofstede s Four Cultural Dimensions And Fons Trompenaars1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1. Introduction Hofstede (1991) argued that culture was a social phenomenon, people had a mind programming which could distinguish with other people. According to Trompenaars (1997), Ã¢â¬Ëculture is a way a group of people act to solve problems.Ã¢â¬â¢ This report has introduced two approaches to look at culture, which are Geert HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s four cultural dimensions and Fons TrompenaarsÃ¢â¬â¢ seven cultural dimensions. There are mainly demonstrated national cultural by critically evaluate these two approaches. TheRead MoreUnderstanding National Culture And A Common Values And Attitudes Shared By A Particular Group Of Humans1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. - Introduction According to Hofstede definition, it is possible to develop the idea of national culture as the common values and attitudes shared by a particular group of humans that are passed down between generations by different processes (Hofstede, 1980, p. 21). Given this, the primary target of this essay is to analyse the fundamental approaches to understand national culture and the way that this culture can manifest and make the difference in the entry of companies in new markets. In orderRead MoreUnderstanding National Culture : Cross Cultural Management1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1. - Introduction According to Hofstede definition, it is possible to develop the idea of national culture as a culture for a particular group of humans that includes systems of values and is passed down between generations by learning. (Hofstede, 1980, p. 21) Given this, the main target of this essay is to analyse the main approaches to understanding national culture and the way that this culture can manifest and make the difference in the entry of companies in new markets. In order to achieve thisRead MoreAnti Globalization Protest The World Trade Organization2356 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesboundaries and borders diminish, organizations are establishing themselves in more and more locations around the world in order to deliver their goods and services. These organizations are facing challenges as they bring their own cultural understanding into established cultural frameworks (Drogendijk and Slangen, 2006). The interactions of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s and host-countryÃ¢â¬â¢s culture can determine the organizations overall levels of success. Who will change? The organization or the host county? Will
Friday, May 15, 2020
Gangs are nothing new to American society, what is new and disturbing is the recent spike in juvenile crimes with reported ties to certain gangs. Youth gangs have been prevalent in schools in large cities since the 1970 s. However, they have become even more prevalent in schools in the recent past. In the student survey component of the 1995 National Crime Victimization Survey, more than one third (37%) of the students reported gangs at their schools and the percentage of students reporting the presence of gangs at their schools nearly doubled between 1989 and 1995, and then decreased in 1999, according to a more conservative measure. About two thirds of the surveyed students reported that gangs at school were involved in one or moreÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Future gang members tend to become involved in delinquency--including violence--and alcohol or marijuana use at an early age. During childhood and early adolescence, friendships with aggressive peers, conduct problems, and involvement in delinquency are stepping stones to gang membership. Future gang members are likely to have other gang members in their school classrooms, they perform poorly in elementary school, and they have a low degree of commitment to school. They often are identified as learning disabled. They show higher levels of stability in the family, peer group, and school settings, and they spend lots of unsupervised time with friends. Many youth gang members have none of these characteristics. These are good kids, from good families, and they are good students; however, these youths do not remain in gangs long. Adolescents allegiances to f riends, gangs, and other peer groups tend to be brief. Communities should not wait until adolescence to begin gang prevention efforts. Preventive interventions in problem neighborhoods and troubled families could have a significant impact on gang membership. Early academic success is also very important. For communities to be successful, a concerted effort of youth gang prevention programs needs to be established that address each of the major risk factors for gang membership, and increase protection against risk factors. Communities need to develop a well thought out strategy to address gangShow MoreRelatedCauses and Solution of Juvenile Delinquency in America Essay1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunder the age of 18Ã¢â¬ (Khan).Juvenile delinquency can be caused by the influence gangs,bullying, and bad parenting. This topic caught my attention because there a lot of kids getting arrested each year for crimes committed and kids getting involved in gangs, also kids getting access to weapons,drugs, or getting bully by other people. However juvenile delinquency can be prevented by offering bullying prevention, violence prevention curriculums and mentoring programs. Ã¢â¬Å"If gangs are dealing drugs or sellingRead More Juvenile Justice Essay1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Juvenile Justice By:Bill In todays society juveniles are being tried in adult courts, given the death penalty, and sent to prison. Should fourteen-year olds accused of murder or rape automatically be tried as adults? Should six-teen year olds and seven-teen year olds tried in adult courts be forced to serve time in adult prisons, where they are more likely to be sexually assaulted and to become repeat offenders. How much discretion should a judge have in deciding the fate of a juvenile accusedRead MoreYouth Gang Prevention Efforts : A Two Pronged Prevention843 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesYouth Gang Prevention Efforts A two-pronged prevention approach has proven effective, with primary prevention strategies aimed at the community s general population and secondary prevention strategies targeting youth between the ages of 7 and 14 who are at high risk of joining gangs. Prevention efforts undertaken by law enforcement departments around the country include: Ã¢â¬Å"Participating in community awareness campaigns (e.g. developing public service announcements and poster campaigns). ContactingRead MoreCrime Prevention Programs And Juvenile Delinquency1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCrime Prevention Programs Juvenile Delinquency Jenna Moffitt American Military University Professor Parkinson CMRJ295 November 29, 2015 Crime Prevention Programs Juvenile Delinquency Crime is the one constant thing in our country that will always be around. For decades we have enhanced our technology, changed our laws, put away criminals, but crime still, and will always exist. Crime prevention programs are put into place to help prevent juveniles and adults fromRead MoreFice Of Juvenile Justice And Delinquency Prevention1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesYouth gang issues has been around for almost several decades and data showed the proportion of youths joining a gang increased significantly. In order to prevent from newer generations of youths from joining a gang and essentially ruining their future, communities formed together to create a blockage to direct them to a successful future and be a law abiding citizen. The federal government even formed an office called the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention that operates under UnitedRead MoreWhy Do Juveniles Join Gangs?1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGANG VIOLENCE PREVENTION WHY DO JUVENILES JOIN GANGS? Juveniles often join gangs to be accepted into a society of their peers. These juveniles are looking for acceptance and a sense of belonging. They join these gangs for special status amongst their friends, protection from other gangs, financial help, peer pressure, excitement and for some juveniles, they are born into a gang society and it is a family tradition. Gangs can also act like a family. They will praise, chastise and show them aRead MoreCauses Of Gang And Gang Violence1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGang and gang violence has always been an ongoing problem within the country. Street gangs have evolved into some of the most notorious group associated with murders and killings that law enforcement agencies have encountered. Gang violence has become one of the most serious crime problem happening in the country that involves physical assaults, drive-by shootings, homicides, robberies, prostitutions, and home-invasion along with a long list of criminal activities. It had occurred an d multipliedRead MoreSummary : Youth Gang And Violence1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIskuhi Kalantaryan Juvenile Delinquency Sunday, March 27, 2016 Analytic Essay Youth Gang and Violence Delinquent Behavior Ã¢â¬Å"GangÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Youth GangÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Street GangÃ¢â¬ are just labels used to describe young people consisting of three or more individuals organized to achieve a typical objective and who share a common identity. There is no single and universally accepted definition of gang, gang member and gang activities in the United States, howeverRead MoreStreet Gang And Street Gangs950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages2015 Youth and Street Gangs There is no definite term for the word Ã¢â¬Å"gangÃ¢â¬ . State and other local government organizations tend to create their own definition. The depiction of Ã¢â¬Å"street gangÃ¢â¬ is consistently intertwined with Ã¢â¬Å"youth gangÃ¢â¬ . However, the term Ã¢â¬Å"street gangÃ¢â¬ can mean two particular meanings that raise itÃ¢â¬â¢s face value. 1st, it proposes a common quality of gangs: They usually contain a street presence. Street socialization is a huge attribute of young gangs. 2nd, this expression alsoRead MoreEssay on Juvenile Justice1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPortfolio on Juvenile Status Offenders A juvenile status offender is a youth charged with an offense that is not consider a crime if committed by an adult; this would include but not limited to running away from home, curfew violations, underage drinking, skipping school, or beyond a parents control. Status offenders are usually not incarcerated on their first offense, but violating a court order can find them as delinquent who can result in being place in a correction or detention facility.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Mental illness affects many people in the world. As people are able to learn more and science improves more therapies become available. However as with all treatments there is a number of issues one must consider when deciding on the right therapy. Mental illness is not like a headache where one knows what is wrong and can take a aspirin. Mental illness varies in so many ways that treatment varies among everyone who suffers from the disease. When dealing with mental illness the need for treatment is imperative. Unlike other illnesses and disorders, the task of finding a treatment for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mental illness is difficult because everyone responds differently to medication. Even when medicines work for different people so many variables play a role in the treatment that issues such as side effects and long term efficacy that the process of treating mental illness is always ongoing and very to the letter. For example, Patient A a 28 year old woman suffers from bipolar disorder. She takes 60 mg depakote daily which is the maximum recommended dosage. On the opposite end of the spectrum Patient B a 25 year old male take 30 both exhibit the same symptoms both are similar in numerous ways yet Patient A who is 100lbs lighter than Patient B must take more than double the dosage for the same symptoms, same diagnosis in an effort to reach the same outcome. The reasons for this are numerous and therefore the process of medicat ed someone who suffers from mental illness is aShow MoreRelatedThe Link Between Anxiety And Depression1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Abstract The two different mental disorders, anxiety and depression, obtain more in relation everyday. Although each can have different causes and characteristics they share many common ones. Strong links throughcertain illnesses and disorders like asthma and headaches are being configured through specific chemicals in the brain. Two examples being serotonin receptors and corticotropin releasing factor receptor1. Certain combinations of the two can lead to a change in energy leveles causing bothRead MoreDepression And Mental Depression1297 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSome people have mental health concerns from time to time throughout their life, but continual signs and symptoms can cause frequent stress and problems in daily life. A mental illness influences how a person feels, thinks, functions, and how they respond others. Anxiety and depression are both examples of mental health illnesses. Anxiety is being extremely nervous constantly throughout typical life events and responsibilities (Clevela nd Clinic). Depression is a broad term used to describe an extremeRead MoreThe Incorrect Diagnosis For Greater Reimbursement1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespurposely misdiagnosed depression for a higher reimbursement that they would have received if the diagnosis were that of a physical disorder (p. 135). Clearly, this is unacceptable behavior for a healthcare professional, whether they are medical or mental health providers. A clinician does not want to misdiagnose their client. Clinicians often follow three processes when diagnosing a client. First, the clinician ensures the classification correlates to a medical component. The belief is thatRead MoreMental Illness is not an Adjective to Describe People821 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMental illness is the largest health problem that is generally viewed as least important or least impacting. My generation has a bad habit of using mental illnesses as adjectives; sheÃ¢â¬â¢s so bipolar or thatÃ¢â¬â¢s retarded. What people dont understand is that mental illness is one of the largest leading health problem in America. Mental illness is an ever growing problem that affects all types of people all across the world. In order to make others understand the gravity of mental illness we mustRead MoreCentral Louisiana Technical Community College Essay960 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCollege Ã¢â¬ ¢ DEFINITION- Also called Briquet s syndrome, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a psychiatric disorder in which the patient conveys mental distress with physical (somatic) symptoms. This is an unconscious phenomenon and is not similar to other disorders such as malingering. There is no cause for the physical symptoms with this disorder. For example, someone with anxiety may have reoccurring headaches with no cause. Ã¢â¬ ¢ POSSIBLE CAUSE- The exact cause is unknown. According to U.S. National Library of Medicine: oRead MoreThe Film Silver Linings Playbook And If It Accurately Represents Pat Solatano s Mental Illness961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMany films try and portray mental illness in different ways but many do not accurately represent the illness and the struggle that people go through. In this essay we will be looking at the film Silver Linings Playbook and if it accurately represents Pat SolatanoÃ¢â¬â¢s mental illness. The film Silver Linings Playbook follows the life of Pat Solatano. After Pat catches his wife was cheating on him he has a manic attack and is required to spend many years in a mental institution to help with this disorderRead MoreJust Mercy By Bryan Stevenson903 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMercy, Bryan Stevenson recounts the stories of several clients whose mental illness was ignored during their trial. Some had intellectual disabilities, others were dealing with the aftermath of severe trauma, but each one was changed in some way. Whether their reasoning had been altered or th ey simply did not understand what was happening, any crime they committed was closely tied to their mental state. Logically, a major detail like the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s thought process and motivation behind the crime wouldRead MoreBipolar And Related Disorders : Symptoms And Treatment Of Bipolar Disorder1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesperplexing mental illnesses that are difficult to diagnose and treat. Bipolar illness is a chronic shifting of extreme euphoria (mania) and deep sadness or hopelessness (depressive) episodes, complicated by comorbidities and the potential for poor health outcomes. The occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) throughout the adult population in the United States is reported to be approximately 5.7 million people each year, with a lifetime prevalence of 3.9 percent. (National Institute of Mental Health) Read MoreFilm Review : Shutter Island1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescauses and maniac episodes that the character demonstrates. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, Ã¢â¬Å"Bipolar disorder also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks.Ã¢â¬ As Andrew Laeddis is assigned to investigate the death of Rachel Solodon, He begins to experience headaches, and mood shifts. His moods are shifting due do bipolar disorder. Another scene in Shutter IslandRead MoreWhat You Don t Know Might Kill You1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconstantly eat the previously mentioned American diet, suffer from some sort of physical, mental, or emotional illness, whether it be chronic headaches, poor gut health, obesity, diabetes, asthma, chronic fatigue, ADHD, anxiety, or any of the other thousands of health problems. Many people suffering from these illnesses are led to believe that there is no direct cure and that they will just have to cope with their illness. However, what most of those people do not realize is that many of the diseases they
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The Feasibility of Santol (Sandoricum koetjape) as Eraser Statement of the Problem 1. Which part of the santol should be used to make the eraser more durable? 2. Does using the santol seeds affect the erasing ability of the eraser? 3. Will the use of the santol pulp enable the eraser to be dustless when used? Hypothesis 1. If the santol pulp is used in the mixture, then the eraser will be more durable. 2. If the santol seeds are used in the mixture, then there will be no effect on the eraserÃ¢â¬â¢s erasing ability. 3. If the santol pulp is used, then the eraser will produce less dust. Significance of the studyThe study is conducted by the researchers to determine the capability of Santol(Sandoricum koetjape) as an added ingredient in making erasers. Rubber, being the main component of erasers, is one of the biggest nuisances of our ecosystem. This study will help lessen the increasing rate of rubber. We will write a custom essay sample on Santol Eraser or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Using Santol as the main component of the eraser will not only help the environment but also give Santol a new use in the industry. Methodology Materials * Pliatex mold rubber * Water * Vinegar * 6 Containers * Wax paper * Cookie cutters (optional) * Santol(1 kilo) Procedure For Eraser A: 1. Blend the santol pulp.Mix the Santol pulp with Pliatex and water, evenly, depending on how large you want the eraser to be (for example, use 10 mL of water,10 mL of Pliatex, and 10 mL of Santol). In a different container, put half as much vinegar as you have combined between Pliatex , santol, and water.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
La Dispute is a five piece post-hardcore band from Michigan that formed in 2004. They are composed of vocalist Jordan Dreyer, drummer Brad Vander Lugt, guitarists Chad Sterenberg and Kevin Whittemore and Bassist Adam Vass. They distribute their albums through No Sleep Records. In 2008, they released their debut album Somewhere at the Bottom of the River Between Vega and Altair. La Dispute uses many extended metaphors and other literary devices to add imagery to their music. Their songs have a deep meaning and they apply their own interpretation from some lines of the Edgar Allen Poe poem, Annabel Lee. Lead singer Jordan Dreyer says Ã¢â¬Å"In general, I think boxing art into categories only serves as a way to exclude people from exploring different variations of the same thing. I think the only real definition between artists exists in their intentions for creating artÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Although he does not like to categorize his music, La Dispute is described as hardcore influenced by bl ues and spoken word. We will write a custom essay sample on Fall Down, Never Get Up Again by La Dispute or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ã¢â¬Å"So tell me, what is there to fear You think some seraph up above is trying to rob us of our love Because the skyÃ¢â¬â¢s not clear My dearÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I specifically love La Dispute because they put a lot of emotion in their music, which is not something you get from a lot of artists recently. There are also many meanings that one can take from their music based solely on his or her personal life. I think this is great because it relates to a variety of people.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Franz Kline essays Among the leading painters of post-World War II Abstract Expressionist movement, Franz Kline developed his own highly personal form of art based more on spontaneous expression in abstract design of the artists psychic states.1 Abstract expressionism saw representation as the exact opposite of their main aim in painting. Formal issues such as color, lines, and shapes without recognizable representation is what Kline, like many other abstract expressionists, strove to portray in their paintings. They were individuals that were foraging their own way into the art world. Mainly an artist of impact, Klines work was forceful and boldly dramatic, which characterized his aggressiveness and raw energy. Best known for his robust black-and-white abstractions, his zealous brushwork seemed to manifest the energy and gestures produced in the act of painting. In this paper I will argue how Klines unique form, also referred to as action painting, was affected by his background and other artists, how his work was not influenced or represented Chinese calligraphy, and why he should be set aside from other The Pennsylvania native originally was a representational painter, that used a style mixed of Cubism and Social Realism. He attempted to capture the energy of city life while going to school at Boston University and Heatherlys School of Art in London, before settling in New York. Up until the 1940s Kline painted urban scenes and figures in a conventional, realist style. A couple years after moving to New York, he sparked an interest in abstraction and reduced the elements of his old style. However, the turning point of his career came once he enlarged some black-and-white drawings through a projector, and recognized the expressive power to which his style possessed in large scale, and thus decided to abandon representation all together. Althou...
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Explain the central ideas of the text, paying particular attention to how the author explores the relationship between film and - Research Paper Example It is no wonder that the issue of racism and colonialism has been covered in cinema numerous times with a further criticism expounded in different literary works. Sundry authors tried to display the problem of racism expressing own attitude to its consequences and influence on political and social sphere of life. Among a long list of such examples, there are Daniel Leab, Donald Bogle, Richard Maynard, Ralph Friar, Lester Friedman and many others who made an attempt to research the rate of veracity in the representation of colonial aspects in cinematography. Despite the fact demonstration of colonised nations contains a high level of distortion and it hardly can be compared to the real events, Stam and Spence (2009) consider that the biggest mistake of all critics is that they tend to forget that films in most cases are invention, fable and fiction. While numerous researchers focus on plot and characters analysing Ã¢â¬Ëpositive imagesÃ¢â¬â¢, it has been found that frequently such images may be accepted as subversive leading to counterproductive effect and spreading racism in spite of their favourable representation and good intentions. The research of Stam and Spence takes into account the effect of sexism and anti-Semitism to provide a study on methodology and analysis on representations of texts. The authors explain the most important definitions such as colonialism, the Third World and racism. Hence, it has been concluded that historically racism evolved from the colonisation process and representatives of racism became those people who suffered from colonisation. Racism by its nature is not only the process of putting standards on values, asserting benefits of some nations and disparaging of other people, but it is a powerful source of scorn, violence, discrimination and crime. The idea to depict colonialism firstly started in literature where subjection of nations was considered as a way to eliminate overall ignorance and tyranny. Glorification of colon ialism can be met in the works of Daniel Defoe, Montaigne and even Shakespeare. The depiction of racism in the films that more often occurred in the beginning of twentieth century showed colonised nations from negative sides, which was not an unpredicted action of European film-makers. According to the research of Stam and Spence (2009), the history has been misinterpreted and falsely represented by cinematography that used to put cliches and unfair images on oppressed people. Numerous errors have been made in Hollywood films that misinform their viewers and change the real events. Hence, the representation of safari as a jungle with beasts of prey or the depiction of the period right after the Second World War without the existence of one single black person can be a good example of such blunders. Due to the conclusions of the authors, the most significant error of films is not the picture of changed stereotypes but the lack of oppressed groups as it happened with the exclusion of blacks on the screen. At the same time, the American musicals with the participations of only black actors were made by white film-makers especially for black audience and also could be accepted as racism since there was a total absence of white actors for saving the fabrication of existed stereotypes. Another wrong tendency that can be noticed in the European and American films is the usage of incorrect language when